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 HYSTORY OF BOER RESISTANCE SINCE ANC TAKE-OVER

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PosOnderwerp: HYSTORY OF BOER RESISTANCE SINCE ANC TAKE-OVER   Fri May 21, 2010 10:59 pm

Boer Resistance

The Boers strike back!

The true story of Boer resistance to the ANC takeover

(Following is extract from an unpublish book on South Africa by Arthur Kemp)

(Photos will follow soon)

There are many critics who accuse the AWB of "having done nothing" to try and physically prevent the takeover of South Africa by the ANC - as had long been Terre'Blanche's war cry at AWB rallies.

This criticism is based on ignorance of the facts - the truth is that out of all of the numerous right wing organizations which threatened violence and uprising should the ANC take over, the only organized active physical resistance came from the AWB - and this was acknowledged in a strange way by the government of the time with the calling out of a state of emergency in the Western Transvaal in April 1994.

After a series of smaller bomb blasts in Western Transvaal towns such as Bloemhof and Sannieshof, the first indication of real trouble came with the destruction of the SABC broadcast tower serving the Western Transvaal during the week running up to April elections.

On Friday night, 22 April 1994, a bomb destroyed the Department of Home Affairs offices in Potgietersrus in the Northern Transvaal, and an important petrol pipeline running from the Sasol complex in the northern Orange Free State was severely damaged - causing a spectacular fire - by a bomb the same night.

It was however a bombing campaign which occurred in the days immediately leading up to the election which caused international headlines and for a while did caused many observers to seriously question whether the elections would go ahead or not.

During this bombing campaign, the largest bombs ever to be detonated in South Africa's history were to go off - bombs four times as big as the biggest bomb that the ANC had ever been able to detonate during its 29 year long guerrilla campaign.

In the resulting court case in which a total of 27 AWB men - including many of that organization's top leaders, the state put together in its charge sheet one of the most interesting cases the south Africa courts had ever seen.

The charge sheet, which was finally formulated in December 1994, contained many startling allegations, which included the following:

"1. On or about 21 April 1994 accused Clint Entlish, Josias Cruywagen, and Jan Kruger illegally broke into the club house of the "Para-Shop" parachute club at the PC Pelser Airport at Krugersdorp and therefrom stole the following items: 9 parachutes, one book entitled "Sky Diving in 7 8 days"; one Altimaster meter, four Auto Page "Student Helmet Mount Radios"; 5 Motorola carriers for the Helmet Mount radios; 2 holders for Motorola Two Way transmitters, and 1 King Kx99 "Ground to air tranciever".

These items were found on 27 April 1994 during the arrest action carried out at the Waterval shooting range in the district of Rustenburg (as described in paragraph 29 infra) and were found on or in the vicinity of mentioned shooting range.

2. On 21 April 1994 accused Nicolaas Barnard, Abraham Myburgh and Jan Kruger carried out a reconnaissance on a game farm named `Springfontein' in the Koster region (hereafter called the game farm) in order to establish if it was suitable as a basis for the preparation and execution of the aforementioned conspiracy.

3. On 23 April 1994 a group of persons gathered together at the game farm for the purpose of furthering and executing aforementioned conspiracy.

4. On or about 23 April 1994 and on the game farm, under the leadership of Jan Kruger, assisted by one Johan Du Plessis (hereafter called Du Plessis) started planning on how to steal motor vehicles for use in attacks on (Black) taxis and taxi ranks, terror attacks and motor car bombs.

5. On 23 April 1994 accused Etienne le Roux, Nicolaas Barnard, and Abraham Myburgh, along with a co-conspirator named Jacob Koekemoer (hereafter called Koekemoer) went to the farm Koesterfontein in the Magaliesburg region (hereafter called Koesterfontein) in the Koester district. Here accused Nicolaas Barnard told Koekemoer, who as a miner was familiar with the workings of explosives, to build a bomb for use in an act of terror in the centre of Johannesburg. Koekemoer then with the help of accused Etienne le Roux, Nicolaas Barnard, and Abraham Myburgh, proceeded to build the bomb in an Audi motor car with registration number HRZ 071T. This vehicle was lent to accused Nicolaas Barnard by the owner thereof, with the purpose of using it in such terror attack.

Etienne le Roux, Nicolaas Barnard, and Abraham Myburgh proceeded with the aforementioned Audi, in which the bomb was concealed, as well as a second motor vehicle to the centre of Johannesburg where they detonated the bomb at 09h50 in Bree Street.

7. On the same day Koekemoer proceeded to manufacture 20 pipe bombs at Koesterfontein. These bombs were taken on 24 April to the Game farm by accused Etienne le Roux, Nicolaas Barnard and Abraham Myburgh.

8. During the evening of 24 April 1994 accused (AWB secretary general) Nico Prinsloo, (Ystergarde chief) Leon van der Merwe, Johannes Smit, Abraham Fourie and Du Plessis, gathered behind closed doors on the game farm. After this meeting Du Plessis and accused Abraham Fourie gathered together all the persons on the game farm together (sentries included). Thereafter accused Abraham Myburgh explained the workings of the pipe bombs to the gathered persons. Du Plessis then asked for volunteers, who had motor vehicles available, to carry out attacks with aforementioned pipe bombs. He also asked for crew to accompany these drivers during the execution of these attacks. The target areas for the attacks and the groups were identified as follows:

(a) Westonaria: Accused Jan Kruger, Martin Wiebosch (hereafter called Wiebosch) and Tiaan Potgieter hereafter called Potgieter in Wiesbosch's vehicle;

(b) Randfontein : Accused Clint Entlish, Josias Cruywagen, Johannes Venter in Clint Entlish's vehicle;

(c) Pretoria: Accused Jacobus Nel, Petrus Steyn, and Gerhardus Fourie in accused Jacobus Nel's vehicle;

(d) Krugersdorp: Jan Pieter Hanekom (hereafter called Hanekom); with persons unknown in aforementioned Hanekom's vehicle. This group however lost its nerve and hid the bomb at a place unknown to the state and returned to the game farm without having accomplished their mission.

9. On 25 April 1994 accused Jan Kruger, together with Wiebosch and Potgieter detonated a pipe bomb at a taxi rank on the Westonaria -Carletonville road near to Westonaria. No persons were hurt during the explosion but damage was inflicted to vehicles. On their return to the game farm these persons gave a report back to accused AWB secretary general Nico Prinsloo and Ystergarde chief Leon van der Merwe, after these two asked about the course of the operation.

10. On 25 April 1994 accused Clint Entlish, Etienne le Roux and Johannes Venter detonated a pipe bomb at a taxi rank on the corner of Third and Park Streets, Randfontein. No persons were hurt during this explosion and vehicles were damaged.

11. On 25 April 1994 accused Jacobus Nel, Petrus Steyn and Gerhardus Fourie detonated a pipe bomb in a restaurant at 20h30 on the corner of Bloed Street and 7th Avenue in Marabastad, Pretoria.

12. On 24 April 1994 Koekemoer, with the help of accused Etienne le Roux, Nicolaas Barnard, Abraham Myburgh and Jan de Wet, as well as accused Abraham Vlok built a further bomb at the game farm in a Karet trailer with serial number LM6-R-343 STD and a registration number NSY 742 T.

13. Aforementioned trailer was, with the bomb mounted therein, taken to Germiston on 25 April 1994. Accused Jan de Wet drove the vehicle which pulled the trailer, while Abraham Vlok was the crew. Accused Etienne le Roux and Du Plessis accompanied the other two to Germiston, in Etienne le Roux's vehicle. The bomb was detonated at 08h45 in Odendaal Street, Germiston.

14. The explosives used in the building of the aforementioned trailer were supplied by accused Cornelius Botha (jnr) and Cornelius Botha (snr).

15. A further group of conspirators which included accused Johannes Olivier, Serge D'Abbadie and Dirk Meyer, who were under the command of accused Milestone Sharp, arrived at the game farm on the morning of 25 April 1994 from Natal. After their arrival on the game farm accused (AWB secretary general) Nico Prinsloo, who introduced himself as `general Prinsloo' informed them about the situation. The core of his talk contained the following: (his precise words are unknown to the state):

15.1 That it was now war and that those who want to leave the game farm will be shot;

15.2 That a few bombs had already gone off. He explained that another group, the Boere Krisis Aksie (Boer Crisis Action) had also left off a few bombs, and that the Telkom exchange and electronic instrumentation which had been blown up was the work of the BKA. He said that the BKA had been informed that the telecommunications were of such a nature that they could not afford for them to be destroyed, but that they however would have no problem if the BKA destroyed power lines.

15.3 That the persons at the farm could expect to be there for at least two or three months;

15.4 That strict entrance control would be implemented and that no-one could enter or leave the area without permission;

15.5 That there could be a visit from the police and it must look like those present were busy with a training camp;

15.6 That illegal weapons must be hidden in the hills around the camp, but in such a manner that they could easily be picked up;

15.7 That it was fairly safe on the game farm as guards had been deployed on top of the hill and by the gate;

15.8 That they were going to see strange things and that certain persons would be busy building things but that this would be no reason for concern;

15.9 That the men should now forget for a while about their women, but that opportunity would be given to phone them and to visit them on certain weekends;

15.10 That when the men did go and telephone their wives, they would be escorted by two members of the Ystergarde.

16. The accused Johannes Smit also addressed the persons and amongst other things said to them:

16.1 That his 9mm pistol was illegal. He took his weapon out and showed it to the men;

16.2 That if someone tried to run away, he personally would shoot them dead;

16.3 That a roster would be worked out for guard duties;

16.4 That illegal weapons should be hidden;

16.5 That each person should write his name on a piece of paper and indicate what his area of speciality was.

17. Accused Abraham Fourie, who acted as camp commander, then also addressed the men. He laid out the rules with regard to camp hygiene and said that no-one could leave the camp without his permission.

18. On 26 April 1994 the game farm was evacuated and those present, including the accused and persons unknown to the state, moved in several small convoys, using secondary roads, to a shooting range at Waterval in the district of Rustenburg (hereafter called the shooting range).

19. After their arrival at the shooting range accused (AWB secretary general) Nico Prinsloo gave orders to accused Clint Entlish and Jan Kruger to hide a number of pipe bombs, explosives and explosive equipment in the bush, which they then did.

20. Accused Milestone Sharp then gave accused Serge D'Abbadie and one Pieter Swanepoel and Anton Oelofse orders to hide the following items in the bush: a R1 rifle, a box with R1 ammunition, and two bottles containing explosives.

21. Accused Abraham Fourie then gave the men orders to conceal illegal weapons in the surrounding bush. If the police should arrive at the scene the hidden weapons should be quickly obtained and the police should be led into an ambush if they approached the bushes, he said. He further told the men that the police were going to be informed of their presence there, but that the purpose of their presence there was going to be made out to be for training and patrols.

22. During the night of 26 April 1994 accused Nicolaas Barnard and accused Jan Kruger and Du Plessis gave orders to the men to go and fetch the pipe bombs which accused Clint Entlish and Jan Kruger had earlier hidden in the bush. Accused Jan Kruger and Du Plessis then fetched five pipe bombs and handed them to accused Abraham Myburgh. Thereafter accused (AWB secretary general) Nico Prinsloo gave orders to accused Jan Kruger and Du Plessis to go and fetch the rest of the hidden explosives, which was then done.

23. Accused Abraham Myburgh then gave two pipe bombs to accused Milestone Sharp, Johannes Olivier, Serge D'Abbadie, Willem Hattingh, Andreas Coetzee and Hercules Coetzee, as well as the other conspirators who had come from Natal. Accused Abraham Myburgh explained to the aforementioned conspirators how to detonate the pipe bombs. The two bombs were destined to be detonated in the Benoni area. Accused Johannes Olivier, Serge D'Abbadie, Willem Hattingh, Andreas Coetzee as well as one Doppies Treurnicht left for Benoni at approximately 18h00. Two vehicles were used for the expedition. One vehicle was used as a lead car while the pipe bombs were transported in the second car.

24. Around 21h40 during the evening of 26 April 1994 accused Johannes Olivier who was driving a vehicle with Doppies Treurnicht as passenger, drove through a police roadblock in Main Reef Road West, Benoni. The vehicle was pursued by members of the Benoni traffic department. Shots were then fired from the vehicle at the traffic policemen. After accused Johannes Olivier brought the vehicle to a standstill, he and Doppies Treurnicht jumped out and ran way. Accused Johannes Olivier was arrested a short way away but Doppies Treurnicht got away. In the vehicle one pipe bomb was found. Shortly thereafter another pipe bomb was found alongside the road where it had been thrown out of the aforementioned vehicle before it driven through the police road block. Accused Serge D'Abbadie, Willem Hattingh and Andreas Coetzee returned during the course of the night of 26/27 April to the shooting range.

25. During the night of 26 April 1994 some of the conspirators at the shooting range moved by car to the farm of accused Jan de Wet where they met their wives.

26. During the evening of 25 April accused Willem Hattingh and Andreas Coetzee stole a Peugeot vehicle with registration number FXS768T from Homelake Street, Randfontein.

27. During the evening of 26 April 1994 the aforementioned Koekemoer, with the help of accused Etienne le Roux, Nicolaas Barnard, Cornelius Botha (jnr), Cornelius Botha (snr) and Gert Alberts, made a bomb in the aforementioned Peugeot. Accused Nicolaas Barnard explained to accused Etienne le Roux and Du Plessis how to detonate the bomb.

28. On 27 April 1994 at approximately 02h45 accused Nicolaas Barnard gave orders to accused Etienne le Roux, Jan Kruger and Du Plessis to go to Jan Smuts International Airport (Johannesburg) with the aforementioned Peugeot and detonate it. Accused Jan Kruger and Du Plessis drove in the Peugeot while accused Etienne le Roux accompanied them in another vehicle. At approximately 07h00 the same morning the bomb was detonated in the under cover parking area at Jan Smuts airport. No persons were killed during the explosion but the persons named in charges 64 to 73 were seriously injured during the explosion.

29. Early in the morning of 27 April 1994 at the shooting range accused Milestone Sharp gave the order to the conspirators to pack up and move off the range. At about 05h15 the same morning members of the South African police swooped on the shooting range while the conspirators were busy withdrawing. Accused Nicolaas Barnard, Abraham Myburgh, Milestone Sharp, Johannes Smit, Clint Entlish, Serge D'Abbadie, Willem Hattingh, Andreas Coetzee, Cornelius Botha (jnr), Cornelius Botha (snr), Dirk Meyer, Hercules Coetzee and Gert Alberts were the persons arrested in the immediate vicinity of the shooting range.

30. During the arrests the accused as mentioned in paragraph 29, the following items were seized in the immediate vicinity of the shooting range:

(a) 16 machine guns as in charge 80;

(b) nine unlicensed firearms as in charge 82;

(c) 30 465 rounds of ammunition of various calibres;

(d) fourty licensed firearms;

(e) four crossbows with arrows;

(f) 32 two way radios;

(g) four bullet proof vests;

(h) nine parachutes;

(i) one angle grinder;

(j) one welding machine;

(k) eight battery chargers;

(l) explosives, explosive devices and parts thereof:

1 x 150 gram Dinogel explosive;

49 x 250 gram Emex explosive;

7 x 150 gram Emex explosive;

62 x 250 gram Tovex explosive;

2 x 150 gram Emex packaging;

1 x 250 gram Cordtex fuse;

1 x 500ml soft drink bottle containing Emex explosive;

2 x M65 hand grenades;

1 x limpet mine;

100 x ordinary attaching fuse;

5 x ordinary electric detonators;

13 x electronically delayed detonators;

20 x wax cartridges with megnadet detonating systems;

50 x Sure Start electric igniters for fuses;

1 x roll Stope Cord 9 fuse;

5 x rolls slow burning fuse;

1 x roll Stope line fuse;

(m) medical equipment including bandages and intravenous feeding apparatus;

(n) 173 back packs with additional clothing which included camouflage of different organisations;

(o) a large quantity of non perishable foodstuffs."

It is worth noting the second last item listed above as being seized at the shooting range: 173 back packs were found but in total only about 40 men were ever arrested.

It would be fair then to presume that the 40 men so arrested did not each carry two or three back packs, so then it appears as if there are still more than 130 people who were present at the shooting range, apprehended and indeed unidentified.

Other incidents of note during the same period included the following:

- the bomb blast in Bree Street, Johannesburg, killed an ANC candidate in the elections, a white woman by the name of Susan Keane.

- at the scene of the Pretoria restaurant bombing, a police guard at the scene of the blast, shot and killed a White man who was part of a group of Whites who were scratching through the rubble at 3am the following morning, apparently in search of clues which might lead to the identity of the bombers. The men were all wearing balaclavas.

- before the police roadblock system achieved its breakthrough in Benoni, the police had offered a R2 million reward to any person providing information which would lead to the arrest and conviction of the bombers - the largest reward ever offered in South African history.

- several other bombs exploded at various places around the country as well, with the biggest of these going off in Kimberly in the Northern Cape.

The new South African constitution ironically guaranteed the right to bail, so the AWB men (who were all members of the Ystergarde) initially arrested at the Rustenburg shooting range were granted bail of R10 000 each.

Not all the accused were arrested at the shooting range. Several were arrested later as the police started to put together a picture of what they believed had happened. One of those who was the last to be arrested was Etienne le Roux, who was only granted bail during the court case itself. Doppies Treurnicht, the man in the car which was stopped at the roadblock in Benoni, was eventually arrested eleven months later in March 1995 at his home town of Port Nolloth in the Northern Cape. He however turned state witness, and was not charged.

Evidence presented before the court contained some dramatic revelations not contained in the charge sheet, and these revelations included the following:

- The state's case rested heavily on AWB turncoats and the king pin in this evidence has been Jacob Koekemoer, one of those originally arrested at the shooting range. Without his evidence the state would have battled to put together a case at all, even though there were a number of other corroborating witnesses as well.

Koekemoer, who had been kept in protective custody, testified before the Rand Supreme Court that he had helped to build the bombs which were used in the bombing campaign of April 1994. He said he had been approached by AWB commandant (and accused) Abraham Fourie, while on a game farm on the weekend prior to the April elections. Fourie had asked him if he had knowledge of explosives, to which he replied that he was a qualified blaster on the mines. He was asked to accompany accused Etienne le Roux, Clifton Barnard and Abraham Myburgh, who drove to the Koesterfontein farm in the Krugersdorp area, on Saturday 23 April 1994.

At the farm they unloaded six 50 kg bags of Anfax explosives from the boot of the car. Barnard said they wanted to build a car bomb, or a bomb to be placed next to a building to cause large scale damage. He said they hoped this would "prevent the Blacks from voting."

Koekemoer told the men that a car bomb would be more suitable, as it would not be noticeable. They built the bomb by placing 100 kg of Anfax mixed with diesel in the barrel of a grass roller. Koekemoer then placed 20 sticks of Watergel plastic explosive in the centre of the barrel, before another 100 kg mix of Anfax and diesel was used to fill it.

All four of them loaded the grass roller into the boot of a blue grey Audi. Koekemoer said he made a fuse which would take about six minutes to burn, extending from the boot to between the front seats. He told the men that once the fuse was set, the burning would be visible from outside the car.

Further explosives and pieces of iron were packed close to the car's petrol tank. Koekemoer said Barnard, who was in charge, wanted to set the car bomb off at a taxi rank in central Johannesburg. Barnard and Myburgh were to drive the Audi, while Le Roux drove ahead to warn of police road blocks.

Koekemoer told the court that after he had built the first car bomb, the three men who had delivered the bomb to its target, Clifton Barnard, Abraham Fourie and Etienne le Roux, had returned to the game farm. There they had told Koekemoer that they had heard the explosion and "had felt an enormous tremor" when they stopped at a red traffic light some distance away.

Barnard had then instructed him to build a second bomb, Koekemoer said. Barnard also mentioned that he would tell the owner of the Audi car used in the first blast to report it as stolen.

Koekemoer said Barnard had told him that the explosives, fuses and detonators for the second bomb had been provided by accused Cornelius Botha senior, who had obtained them from the Mooinooi mine.

Koekemoer built the second bomb in a white trailer, which he was told belonged to AWB leader Eugene Terre'Blanche.

It consisted of a 19 kg gas cylinder, 40 sticks of Watergel plastic explosive sticks and a mixture of Anfax explosive and diesel fuel which was poured over the top.

Accused Jan de Wet and Abraham Vlok then drove a red Nissan Skyline to Germiston with the trailer attached. Accused Johan du Plessis and Etienne le Roux accompanied them in another car, he said.

Koekemoer said he was "shocked" when he heard later that people had been killed in the blast. However, he said Barnard and Le Roux sounded cheerful about it, "and I fell in with them."

That afternoon they went to the game farm in the Koster district. Koekemoer said AWB members had watched the 8pm newscast on television, and had cheered when they saw the newscast.

- During his evidence, Koekemoer alleged that he had been a police informer from the beginning. He told the court that he had joined the AWB on the instructions of his employers, the police security branch.

Despite this he had built several bombs for the AWB, he said, denying defence accusations that he had acted on orders from a "third force" within the police.

Koekemoer admitted that without his expertise gained as a blaster on the mines, the bombs "would probably not have been built." Defence advocate Louisa van der Walt put it to him that he had built the bombs on orders from the police, and this was why he had made no attempt to contact the police while at the farm.

She said the bombs had been built on orders from the police to commit acts of terror as part of a "Third Force". In so doing they had "attempted to discredit the AWB, to create chaos and to sow the seeds of a fear psychosis so that the elections would fail." Koekemoer strongly denied all the allegations.

He said that his last instructions from his handler was that if his life was in danger, he should act to protect himself.

He felt that if he had not complied with the request to build the bombs, his life would have been in danger. He had been told that if anyone "turned" that would be the end of that person.

On joining the Ystergarde he had taken the oath expected of every member:`if I should turn, shoot me' he said. Van der Walt put it to him that "this oath meant nothing to him as he had already spied on his own people."

Koekemoer said he had "tried to build faults in the bomb," but was told that if it did not work, he "would be in trouble." He said he had made the bombs out of fear for his own life.

He admitted he had made the pipe bombs safer for the people who were handling them, by replacing rapid burning cortex fuse with a detonator fuse. The cortex fuse burns at 8 000m per second.

This admission brought an admonishment from the judge, Justice Flemming, who remarked to Koekemoer that "you made it safer for the man throwing it, but thought nothing of the 20 or 40 people who would be on the receiving end."

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PosOnderwerp: Re: HYSTORY OF BOER RESISTANCE SINCE ANC TAKE-OVER   Fri May 21, 2010 11:00 pm

- CONTINUE:

Koekemoer said he planned to contact his handlers, but was afraid to use the party telephone line at the farm in case other people were listening in. He had not attempted to escape from the farm because he thought he might be caught by AWB patrols. "I knew it was wrong and a mistake on my part, but in the situation I feared for my life," he said.

This line of argument however fell to pieces when Koekemoer admitted that he had made the "corrections" to the pipe bombs while all alone on a farm near Krugersdorp the weekend before the elections.

At the farm he had access to two way radios, and had still not used them to contact the police, never mind having been left alone with the bombs for a whole day.

- Koekemoer also alleged that a bomb large enough to "lower airplanes from the sky" was initially intended to be used by the AWB to bomb either the Union Buildings in Pretoria or Jan Smuts airport.

He said a smaller bomb destined for Jan Smuts airport was eventually built in a Peugeot car because accused Clifton Barnard had been unable to obtain a petrol tanker in which the larger bomb would have been built.

- The car used in the Bree Street, Johannesburg, bombing of 24 April 1994, was in the possession of one of the AWB members standing trial, the court was told by one of the state witnesses, Barend Breytenbach, of Ventersdorp.

Breytenbach told the court that the car, a green Audi, had belonged to his father, Marthinus Breytenbach. His father had died in January 1995.

He said his father had lent the car to one of the accused, Clifton Barnard, on Friday 22 April 1994. On Saturday 23 April he and his father drove through Ventersdorp in a minibus they had been lent in exchange for the Audi, and saw Barnard standing next to the Audi outside the AWB headquarters.

Barnard had told them they could only get the vehicle back `later' and they had gone home, he testified.

On Sunday 24 April, they drove to Barnard's farm 15 km outside Ventersdorp, but Barnard was not there. After they had spent the day having a braai and riding horses, Barnard had eventually returned late that afternoon in a brown Toyota Corolla car.

Breytenbach's younger brother, Rudolf, then testified that on Barnard's return, when his father had asked Barnard what had become of the Audi, Barnard had motioned him aside. Rudolf overheard Barnard tell his father that the car was a "wreck" and described his father as being very upset.

When they returned home, they found a note under their front door, apparently from Barnard, requesting his father to meet Barnard at "headquarters." Later his father and Barnard's mother told him and his brother not "to say anything about what they had seen or heard."

Breytenbach said the car was never returned to them. The court had heard earlier that it had been reported stolen to the police at 6pm on Sunday 24 April.

Another witness, Abraham Kujani, told the court that he had seen two White men driving an Audi and park it in Bree Street on the Sunday morning shortly before the bomb went off.

Kujani described the driver of the Audi as being tall, with blonde hair and a beard. He was carrying a firearm. Kujani said he became suspicious of the car on seeing smoke coming from the inside. He noticed two policemen at a cafe across the road and then attempted to follow the men, but lost sight of them.

- One of the accused was apprehended in a road block on 26 April 1994 in a car containing two pipe bombs, according to policemen doing duty at a road block on that day.

The court heard that accused Johannes Olivier, 40, of the farm Leafontein in the Boons district, had chased through a roadblock on Main Reef Road, near Benoni, on the evening of 26 April.

State witness FG Wolmarans, who was doing a national service camp with the Benoni commando, said he had been stationed with three others about 800 m from the main roadblock. They had been told to be on the lookout for a white Ford Cortina.

At 9.40pm he noticed a car fitting the description come round the corner. The car stopped about 20 m away from them and he noticed an object being thrown out the passenger door. As they approached the car, he saw two White men sitting in front. It began driving slowly towards the main roadblock.

They radioed back to the main road block, who had told them that the car had sped through at high speed and traffic officers were in pursuit.

A Benoni traffic officer, Hendrik Janse van Rensburg, then testified how he and a colleague had pursued the Cortina to First Avenue, Northmead, where the occupants got out of the car and attempted to escape. During the chase, they heard several shots fired from the Cortina. He and his fellow officer pursued Olivier on foot, and apprehended him.

Major Lionel Palmer, of the Benoni Crime Intelligence Service, said he found a pipe bomb in the boot of the car after questioning Olivier, who said he was the owner of the car. The object thrown out of the car was also a pipe bomb.

Olivier told him that he and his companion had identified a target in Boksburg frequented by Blacks where they would use the smaller of the pipe bombs, and were on their way to Benoni to identify a second target where the larger of the two bombs would be used.

Doppies Treurnicht, the man who was in the vehicle who got out and ran away, was arrested after nearly a year on the run in the West Coast town of Port Nolloth in March 1995.

Treurnicht, who was widely expected to join the accused, made a surprise appearance as a state witness instead, although it turned out that his evidence was not of such great value to the state as the prosecutors had originally hoped.

Treurnicht testified that he was in a car with accused Johannes Olivier, which was stopped in a road block on the way to the East Rand town of Benoni on the evening of 26 April 1994.

He said the car contained two pipe bombs, one in the car and one in the boot. Another car with other AWB men had been following them, he said.

Treurnicht said that when he saw the road block he instructed Olivier to pull over to the side of the road. He had then thrown the pipe bomb in the car out of the window.

They had then sped through the road block. He had fired several shots into the road with his own firearm, but denied that he had fired shots at the police.

Treurnicht said he was only able to identify Olivier, and one other accused, Milestone Sharp, as having been on the game farm at Rustenburg where the police had swooped on the AWB camp. He said Sharp had asked him and Olivier when the came off guard duty at the camp's shooting range if either of them "knew Benoni."

Treurnicht said he was unable to identify the other people who had followed the vehicle in which he had traveled and that he could not identify the person who had demonstrated how the pipe bombs had worked.

Treurnicht also denied ever having seen another state witness, Jacob Koekemoer, whom the state alleged actually made the bombs.

- AWB turncoat Barend Honiball testified in court that he had been part of a group of AWB men gathered on a game farm in the Western Transvaal where he had seen pipe bombs being handled.

He said two of the men, accused Jan Kruger, 20, and Johan du Plessis, had given the men "instructions on how to steal cars."

Further he had been present when a red Nissan Skyline had arrived at the farm, driven by Ystergarde leader Leon van der Merwe. Honiball and other members were told to off load several pipe bombs from the boot of the car.

He said he had first heard about the Bree Street bomb when he saw a newspaper report. Another one of the accused, Clint Entlish, had then told him that "this is only the start, there are still lots to come."

Honiball said Du Plessis and accused Gert Fourie had asked for volunteers amongst the men who had cars, to target various places where the pipe bombs could be thrown.

He said he went to see the police a half hour after being dropped off by other AWB members in Pretoria a few days later.

- One of the police officers investigating the bombings told the court that a metal plate with a serial number from a trailer had been found on the farm where the bombs were allegedly manufactured.

The court had heard earlier that the bomb which exploded at a Germiston taxi rank on 25 April had been detonated in a trailer.

Warrant Officer G Pitout said he went to search the farm Koesterfontein in Magaliesburg, where the bomb had allegedly been made. The farm is owned by the father of one of the accused, Abraham Myburgh.

Pitout said he had found the metal plate in an uninhabited building. The serial number belonged to a trailer registered in the name of AWB leader, Eugene Terre'Blanche.

- State witness Lizanne Kuhrau testified before the court that one of the accused, Jaco Nel, had come to stay with her at the Oewers holiday resort near Brits on 26 April 1994, "worried that the police were looking for him."

Kuhrau, who was estranged from her husband at the time, said two other accused, Petrus Steyn, 34 of Sundra, and Gert Fourie, 37, of Springs, had accompanied Nel when he came to see her at her friend's flat in Sunnyside, Pretoria, on the morning of 25 April.

They had left the flat in her friend's car, a blue Citi Golf, and returned later that day. On the afternoon of 26 April, Nel arrived at the resort with three other men. She identified one as Johannes Smit, 26, of Vereniging.

Nel told her he had heard a report on the radio saying the police were looking for a blue car in connection with a bomb explosion in Marabastad, Pretoria, on the night of 25 April.

He was worried that the police were looking for him and asked if he could spend the night. She agreed and the other three men had left.

Kuhrau, who has since reconciled with her husband, said she made a statement to the police on 21 July 1994. She denied that she had made the report because her relationship with Nel had failed.

She said Nel had asked her to make a false statement saying she had been with him from 10am on 25 April until the following day. Defence advocate Harry Prinsloo said Nel would deny this.

- AWB turncoat Dawid Potgieter testified in court how he and two others had bombed a taxi rank in Westonaria on 25 April 1994. He said he had been amongst those gathered at a game farm in the Koster district for several days before the elections.

Accused Johan du Plessis, 26, had asked for volunteers, he testified. He required four men with cars, and another eight men as passengers to set off pipe bombs in various areas. Potgieter said he was chosen to accompany Martin Wiebosch and accused Jan Kruger, 20, to set off a bomb in Westonaria. Wiebosch was not one the accused and also gave evidence for the state.

Potgieter said they had left the farm early on 25 April. They surveyed several possible targets, including a taxi rank at Westonaria, the train station and the mine, before deciding to bomb a taxi rank on the way to Carletonville. At about 8am they threw the ignited pipe bomb in the direction of the taxi rank, where it landed under one of the vehicles.

Potgieter said he saw someone pick up the pipe bomb, and put it down again, warning other bystanders. People then scattered as the bomb went off. Potgieter said he later reported to AWB commandant Abraham Fourie that the bomb had gone off successfully, but that he did not know if anyone had been killed.

- A statement which formed a crucial part of the state's case against several of the AWB men was ruled inadmissible by the presiding judge, HCJ Flemming, after a "trial within a trial" over the admissibility of the statement and another two state documents.

One of the last state witnesses was the investigating officer in the Bree Street bomb blast, captain Jacobus Terblanche. The defence put it to captain Terblanche that another police captain, Nick Deetleefs and state witness Jacobus Koekemoer had "colluded in making Mr. Koekemoer's statement." (It was Koekemoer's evidence earlier in the trial which was the most damaging to the defence.)

Terblanche conceded under cross examination that it was "possible" that the statement could have been interfered with.

A Colonel Nick Englebrecht also testified that he had taken a statement from one of the accused, Jannie Kruger in May 1984. Kruger had been arrested along with another accused, Josais Cruywagen, and both had allegedly made statements. The defence however contested the admissibility of the statements, arguing that they had been filed in without either of the two accused' knowledge or permission.

Englebrecht said Kruger had made his statement freely and voluntarily, and had not insisted on a legal representative being present even though he had been advised that he could have one if he so wished.

The defence team put it to Englebrecht that he and his team were "in a quandary" and desperate for statements after the legal counsel of the men arrested at the shooting range near Rustenburg on 27 April had advised the men there not to make any statements.

The defence put it to Englebrecht that part of the statement he had taken from Kruger had been completed in his absence. Englebrecht denied this. The defence then asked him why if it were true that Englebrecht had not asked Kruger any questions, save for gaining clarification on the events he allegedly described, Kruger had known that he had to begin the statement by supplying details of his schooling and occupational training.

Kruger himself testified that the police had told him that if he refused to become a state witness, he would most certainly get the death penalty. He said at first he refused to make a statement but had been told that he would enjoy protection as a witness for the state, a car, accommodation, a job and "compensation."

When he got to police head quarters in Johannesburg, he was taken to Englebrecht's offices in Germiston where he made a statement. On his way to court for a bail application on 23 May 1993, he said Englebrecht had approached him with a statement on which he had marked with crosses the places where Kruger was required to sign.

He said he had signed the statement after being told that was a form from the attorney general's office which he was obliged to sign as a state witness. He had however been charged along with the other accused in the case.

The statement which Englebrecht had drawn up and which Kruger had been shown unsigned and asked to sign was now the one that the state was trying to submit as evidence, the defence said.

Finally on 6 April 1995 Justice Flemming ruled that Kruger had had little choice in making a statement "as he had virtually been placed between the devil and the deep blue sea."

He said the reasons police gave as to why they did not give Kruger the option of making the statement before a magistrate were unconvincing. Police had testified that it was "too early" to get a magistrate in before whom a statement could be made.

"One wonders why, after he was given legal advice to the contrary, the accused would suddenly have been prepared to make a statement," Flemming continued.

He said that from the content of Kruger's evidence and on the balance of probabilities, it could not be said that he was not speaking the truth" and that therefore the alleged statement was not admissible.

(The statement made by Kruger was to the effect that he had personally driven the car bomb used in the attack on Jan Smuts airport, and that he had been injured in the resultant blast when he had not been able to get away in time. He had then walked back to Ventersdorp - a distance of over 140 kilometres - over two days, spending nights in the veld, with a head wound. He had then been sent down to the Eastern cape by the AWB to hide from the police, but he had been identified by the state witness Koekemoer and was eventually arrested.)

The new interim constitution of South Africa contained a clause which compelled the newly elected government to grant amnesty for political crimes committed before 5 December 1993. As the election time bombings fell outside this date, the AWB took it upon itself to try and get this date extended to 10 May 1994 - the date of the swearing in of Nelson Mandela as president of South Africa. To this purpose the AWB leader appointed his media secretary, Fred Rundle to the post of "Chief Negotiator" and instructed him to make submissions to the ANC Minister of Justice, Dullah Omar, and Mandela to try and get the amnesty cut off date extended.

After several written submissions and a meeting between Rundle and Omar, an invitation was extended to the AWB to address the parliamentary Standing Committee on Justice in cape Town on the issue. Despite all these efforts, the ANC dominated government decided against extending the deadline.

This refusal to consider the AWB men for inclusion under the amnesty law provoked an immediate response - four of the main accused- Clifton Barnard, Etienne le Roux, Abraham Myburgh and Jan de Wet (the first three were accused of planting the Bree Street bomb, while De Wet was accused of planting the Germiston bomb) skipped bail on Wednesday 12 April 1995 and went underground.

On that day the four men failed to appear in court along with the other accused in the case and warrants were issued for their arrest. Their bail of R50 000 each was declared forfeit to the state.

Their attempt at escaping was however short lived, as they were rearrested at a police road block between Piet Retief and Pongola on the Natal / Swaziland border on 19 April 1995.

Although the police claimed the four men were arrested at a "routine" road block, this appears most certainly to be an invented story to cover for the fact that the AWB men were betrayed at some point in their travels.

The police said that the four men were recognised "by chance" by one of the men manning the road block "who happened to have been part of the original arrest team" in the Transvaal.

The chances of a policeman working a roadblock in Northern Natal having been one of the original arrest team is of course extremely slim, and it is far more likely that the arrest team officers were brought down to Natal especially for the road block prior to it being set up, so that there would be people present who could identify the AWB men. All this would indicate that the road block had been set up precisely for the purpose of arresting the men following on information that they would be travelling that particular road.

The driver of the pick up in which the four men were travelling, was released by police virtually immediately afterwards, after apparently claiming that he did not know to who he was giving a lift. This story is of course also extremely dubious.

The four men re-applied for bail once they were back in Johannesburg, and to no-one's great surprise, the request was refused.

The state then closed its case and the defence team immediately requested the Court to discharge on all counts 16 of the 26 accused in the case.

The defence team submitted that the following accused should be discharged on all counts as the state had failed to produce any evidence linking them to any of the incidents: Nico Prinsloo; Leon van der Merwe; Abraham Fourie; his brother Gert Fourie; Hercules Coetzee; his brother Andreas Coetzee; Cornelius Botha; his son Cornelius Botha junior; Gert Alberts; Milestone Sharp; Serge D'Abbadie; Dirk Meyer; Johannes Smit; Clint Entlish; Petrus Steyn; and Johan Du Plessis.

The defence also argued that there was no evidence of the involvement of Etienne le Roux; Cliff Barnard; and Jan de Wet in the Randfontein, Westonaria, Pretoria and Jan Smuts airport bomb blasts, and that charges against them relating to these incidents should also be dismissed.

The defence further argued that there was no evidence against Jan de Wet in the Bree Street bombing incident, and that this charge against him should be dismissed. The defence further applied for the discharge of accused Jaco Nel on all counts except the Pretoria bomb.

This plea was only partially met - seven of the accused were cleared on all counts except for the illegal possession of firearms and explosives, while another one was discharged on all counts except the illegal possession of firearms and explosives charges and one charge of car theft.

Etienne le Roux, Cliff Barnard, Abraham Myburgh and Jan de Wet, remained charged with all 96 counts, which included all the murder charges. Abraham Fourie, Johannes Venter and Johan du Plessis had all charges except those relating to the Bree Street, Germiston and Jan Smuts car bombings withdrawn.

Justice Flemming said the state had failed to prove that there was a conspiracy to commit deeds of terror to disrupt the elections. He said it was "not unthinkable" that among the AWB members gathered at the farm, there was a "relatively innocent group" who only knew about the pipe bombs.

The judge said the Bree Street, Germiston and Jan Smuts car bombs had all been built on the farm Koesterfontein. There was no technical reason why they could not have been built on the game farm. It could be that the building of the car bombs was done in such a way as to prevent the people at the game farm from knowing about them.

Aside from the evidence of state witness Koekemoer who was an accomplice as well as a witness, there was very little evidence about what went on at Koesterfontein.

The judge described Koekemoer as "not only an unconvincing but also a very poor witness" whose evidence could not be accepted by a court "without reasonable doubt."

The case was then postponed to September 1995 in order to give time to the defence to prepare their case. However, when the case was restarted it was once again postponed to 12 February 1996, pending the outcome of a case in the then newly established constitutional court. The issue at stake was whether it was fair to charge everyone present at the shooting range with possession of the firearms and ammunition when they all denied knowledge of the items and no one particular person was found to be in possession of them.

Postscript

On 5 November 1994, Johan Heyns, a prominent Afrikaner theologian and former moderator of the biggest Afrikaans church, NG Church, was assassinated in his Pretoria home while playing with his grandchildren. Heyns was the key man in turning the Afrikaners around against Apartheid through their church by getting their main church to declare Apartheid a heresy. This was a direct turnaround from the church's earlier position which had endorsed Apartheid.

As the Afrikaners are to this day extremely attached to their church and religion, there can be little doubt that this shift by the NG Church did much to persuade Afrikaners to continue supporting the National party's reform policies. As such, Heyns fast became one of the most hated men amongst the right wing.

In April 1995 police discovered three large arms caches which they later linked to AWB fugitive and former Reconnaissance army unit soldier Thys de Villiers. De Villiers eventually arrested in June 1995, and although the police initially suggested that he would be charged with the Heyns' assassination, they later had to admit that they did not have enough evidence against him to press that charge.

De Villiers was however charged with a number of murders, including that of an alleged police informant and some ANC members south of Johannesburg.

The March 1992 referendum served a valuable purpose in that it has helped to quantify the number of Whites who are actively opposed to a hand over of power to a Black government. The 32 percent who voted "no" represent almost one million Whites, most of whom have been radicalized to a smaller or larger degree by the influence of Terre'Blanche and the AWB. This figure cannot get any smaller, only larger. Although steps have been taken to combat the militant potential of the right wing (the arrests of leaders and the banning of private armies) nothing can be done to combat the spirit of militancy which the AWB has helped to create. This spirit of resistance amongst these Afrikaners will be there no matter what, and will, sooner or later, give trouble to any future government of South Africa.

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